A new joint report by UNICEF and GAIN report released today, Brighter futures: Protecting early brain development through salt iodization, shows that iodine deficiency is a leading cause of preventable brain damage in children worldwide.
Insufficient iodine during pregnancy and infancy results in neurological and psychological deficits, reducing a child’s IQ by 8 to 10 points. This translates into major losses in the cognitive capital of entire nations and thus their socio-economic development.
This affects nearly 19 million babies born globally (14 per cent) every year – more than 1 in 4 of these children (4.3 million) are in South Asia.
“The nutrients a child receives in the earliest years of life influence their brain development for life, and can make or break their chance of a prosperous future,” said UNICEF Senior Nutrition Adviser Roland Kupka. “By protecting and supporting children’s development in early life, we are able to achieve immense results for children throughout their lifespan.”
Salt iodization is costs only US $0.02–0.05 per child annually. Every dollar spent on salt iodization is estimated to return US $30 through increased future cognitive ability.
While South Asia is home to the largest proportion of babies at risk globally, the region has the second highest iodized salt coverage rate at 87 per cent of the population, preceded by East Asia and the Pacific at 91 per cent coverage. The lowest coverage with iodized salt was seen in Eastern and Southern Africa, where around 25 per cent of the population do not have access to iodized salt, leaving 3.9 million babies unprotected against iodine deficiency disorders.
“Iodine is critical for childhood development,” said Greg S. Garrett, Director of Food Policy at GAIN. “Due to the collective efforts of governments, industry, civil society, UNICEF, GAIN and others, we are on the verge of being able to ensure sustainable iodine intakes for all children.”
The report outlines urgent steps to reduce the risk of mental impairment to babies’ growing brains:
– Integrate salt iodization into national plans to support children’s nutrition and brain development in early childhood;
– Align salt iodization and salt reduction agendas;
– Establish surveillance systems to identify unreached populations;
– Strengthen regulatory systems to enforce existing legislation on salt iodization;
– Recognize the growing importance of fortified foods as potential sources of iodized salt.
UNICEF and GAIN have been working together for the past 10 years to tackle iodine deficiency disorders. In East Asia and the Pacific, strong policies and legislation helped establish iodized salt as the norm for households and industry. In South Asia, salt iodization has successfully improved population iodine status and a major focus is now to achieve universal coverage and achieve programme sustainability.